Well, a whole school year’s gone by since we started the marvelous mayhem that is Spark-O-Matic in early September of¬†2016 at Medgar Evers Library. And fittingly enough, it’s been most educational, both for mentors and for students, in the exciting months¬†since.
Together, even without a bright, shiny¬†digital creativity lab, we’re exploring how to design websites, make videos, produce soup commercials, delve into logo development (see this post’s featured image), create captivating personal stories with Lida Burris¬†that get seen up on the big screen, and much more.
We’re also learning¬†that sometimes, it’s important to put away your digital devices, even during a digital arts class (maybe especially during digital arts class).¬†And that it’s good to unplug for a while — perhaps do some letterpress at the Mississippi Ag Museum and¬†regain your connection to the real world. After all, one essential key to achieving digital literacy is knowing how to strike¬†a healthy balance between time online and off.
Most importantly, though, the students are discovering¬†how to collaborate together, make connections, share ideas, find their voices and freely¬†express themselves¬†in an increasingly loud, noisy world that can all too often drown them out and mute their creativity. In fact, my favorite times at Spark-O-Matic are when a few¬†students who are inspired and passionate about something‚Äîlike transforming their own illustrated sketches into digital art‚Äîtake the lead¬†and share their skills with others.¬†There is such talent in this group, such incredible potential.
These are the times, too, when the class becomes a true melting pot, simmering with ideas that are made better with each new insight offered up by¬†the students themselves. This is peer-to-peer education at its finest. The way the kids guide¬†each other in solving problems, overcoming technical issues, troubleshooting, and tackling details¬†like shading and perspective is amazing.
And now we’re embarking on two new projects that could top them all: One, a cool music video project¬†propelled by the theme, ‚ÄúWhat Medgar Evers Library means to me‚Ä¶‚Äù¬†Kicking things off a couple weeks ago, we discussed what form such a¬†music video would take. Together, we made a list of what we like best about this library, which included:¬†Talent shows,¬†Game day,¬†Movie Flick Saturday,¬†Spark-O-Matic,¬†Creativity,¬†Community,¬†A place of peace,¬†A place to speak your mind,¬†Family,¬†Superheroes (drawings and people),¬†Voting,¬†Babysitting,¬†Volunteer, Conversation, Escape, Family… and so on.
Angel, a rising 9th grader at Callaway High School, ¬†came up with a winning idea: Have the words and phrases from our list illustrated on handmade cards that students, in groups or individually, hold as they pop up¬†around the library. The plan is to get those action-word pop-ups on camera, then create a soundtrack with¬†masterful music assistance from Will Jolly over at Brown River Sound. Will’s already stopped by to scratch beats and get us going on the music track.
Another big project underway is something in partnership with¬†James Bridgeforth from the Mississippi Heritage Trust (mississippiheritage.com).
The Heritage Trust is about preserving Mississippi‚Äôs historic places. One of those places is Medgar Evers’ home. So, this summer we are embarking on a Spark-O-Matic documentary about Medgar Evers‚Äô home that will created by our students.
Medgar Evers: Where he lived then. Where he lives today: In the hearts and minds‚Äîand lives‚Äîof the children and families served by the Medgar Evers library.
We will tell that story through: 1) A visit to Medgar Evers’ house where we will gather video footage, and 2) Interviews with the families and kids who come to the library, talking with them about Mississippi civil rights leader Medgar Evers.
Starter questions for our patron interviews:
Who is Medgar Evers?
What did he do?
How does what he did live on today?
In our first lively discussion about Medgar Evers, his family and his home, the students added the question, “What is civil rights?” to the mix. That’s a huge question we’ll continue to explore through the project. Once complete, the students’ documentary will be shown at a¬†Mississippi Heritage Trust gala event in December of this year.
We’re going to keep the creative sparks flying over the summer at Spark-O-Matic. While the school doors are closed, the library’s will be wide open. Big things are happening. And you’re invited join this crazy, creative melting pot, Tuesday nights from 5:30 to 6:45.
“You can kill a man but you can’t kill an idea.”¬†‚Äî¬†Medgar Evers
Alex Mullen¬†at the MWB office. Photo by Tate Nations.
Alex Mullen is a medical student at the University of Mississippi School of Medicine who, in 2015, became the first American to win the World Memory Championships, ranking as the highest point scorer in the competition’s 24-year history.
Alex holds the Guinness World Record for most digits memorized in one hour (3,029), and he can memorize the order of a deck of cards in 17 seconds. In 2016, Alex launched Mullen Memory, an initiative he started with his wife, Cathy, to promote the use of memory techniques in school classrooms and universities.
What’s your background? How did you get interested in memory techniques?
MULLEN: I was born in New Jersey. But then I came down to Oxford when I was four. I¬†went to Oxford High School¬†and then Johns Hopkins for college.
The first time I ever found out about memory techniques was when I was a junior in college. Before that I had an average memory, and didn’t really know much about memory techniques. I dabbled with acrostics and stuff like that.
But I came across this TED talk by Joshua Foer [TED Video: Feats of Memory that Anyone Can Do], and I was just kinda blown away by the ingenuity of it. I learned about the “memory palace” technique, and just I couldn’t believe that this kind of thing existed and I hadn’t heard of it or that it wasn’t a bigger part of education.¬†I was a little frustrated with my own memory at the time, and I think that’s part of the reason why I latched onto it. I read Foer’s¬†book “Moonwalking with Einstein” and some other books.
So I was originally interested because I wanted to improve my memory for school. I felt like if I had a better memory, it would be helpful.¬†And, then, I thought¬†maybe I’ll do this competition type thing where you memorize numbers and cards and lists of random words, names and faces¬†‚Äì¬†I’ll do that and then try to get a¬†better¬†understanding of the techniques, so I can go back and use it in school.
I competed at the U.S.A. Memory Championship in 2014, and I got 2nd place there, which was way better than I expected. I’d been training, but I didn’t think I’d do¬†as¬†well as I did. So it¬†was definitely exciting for me and motivating to continue practicing and doing bigger competitions.
I competed a few more times, I think five or six in total now. Then¬†I had a lucky run and won the World Championship in China last December.
When I got to med school, I struggled at first a little bit, which was disheartening because I was having a hard time applying the techniques to what I was learning. So I struggled a little bit, but then I experimented. My wife also uses the techniques¬†‚Äì¬†so we sort of experimented together¬†and worked some things out. Eventually,¬†we got to a point where we were using them for pretty much everything we were learning and finding it very helpful¬†since¬†med school is obviously heavy on¬†memorization.
We’ve been using the techniques for med school for about a year and a half now. I’m still competing. My next one is probably the U.S. Championship again in May.¬†
I saw you have a record for memorizing digits?
MULLEN: Yeah, I have¬†about six¬†or seven¬†U.S. records and one world record, which is the “hour digits” event. It sounds incredibly boring¬†‚Äì¬†and it is.¬†You sit for one hour and they give you a big long number to memorize, and I was able to memorize 3,029 digits.¬†Just the process of sitting down for an hour and then spending another two¬†hours to recall it, which is how the event works, was pretty tough for me ‚Äì someone who’s slightly ADD and can’t really focus and sit still for a long time.
Using the memory techniques¬†has helped me¬†develop my¬†concentration. I don’t think I would have otherwise been able to sit for three whole days in China just memorizing the entire time. So the numbers were¬†definitely a challenge, much harder, from a concentration standpoint, than memorizing one pack of cards.¬†
You did get there very fast, though. How were you able to go from reading a book to being a memory champion in such a short period of time?
MULLEN: I think I trained well. I trained consistently, which I think it an important thing ‚Äì between 30 minutes to an hour a day, usually. You do that over three years and you get pretty good.
There are a lot of people who do that also, who haven’t done as well as I have. And I think that’s just a matter of training effectively. Trying to identify weaknesses and improve, just the same as with sports. But that’s really it. I don’t think I have a very special memory. I forget where I put things all the time.
What’s your technique for memorizing cards¬†and¬†numbers?
MULLEN: For a lot¬†of the events, you’re using basically the same technique, which is the memory palace technique. Most of the events are “sequential events” where you have to memorize the order of a deck of cards,¬†the order of a long number, or the order of a list of 300 words. It’s all the same technique, which is the memory palace. You imagine a physical place that you know ‚Äì you can¬†pick these places ahead of time and have pre-planned routes, like sort of stops on the way in the memory palace. Then you¬†visualize things in those places. Then you¬†go back and¬†see those images, as you¬†go through the palace and recall the information. [Editor’s note: This technique is demonstrated in Mullen’s video, “The 20 Word Challenge.”]
There are differences in the way that people do it ‚Äì¬†how they convert cards or numbers into those images. Because, obviously, it’s not enough to¬†just visualize the two¬†of spades. Some people will turn that card into, for example,¬†Michael Jackson. In my case,¬†I’ll take each pair of cards and combine them¬†into one image. So there are differences like that, but the general technique people use is the memory palace¬†for¬†most of the events. That’s basically how I do it for studying for school, too. There are a few others events that¬†aren’t sequential¬†‚Äì¬†there’s a names and faces event. What people do there is just look at the face¬†and¬†try to find some sort of distinctive features, and then they’ll visualize something that represents the name and attach it to that feature somehow. So like if I were to do you, for instance, I might look at¬†your hair and imagine Randy Johnson, the pitcher that played for the Diamondbacks for a while¬†‚Äì maybe he’s¬†throwing a baseball,¬†and it’s zooming right across your hair like that. It’s really just about trying to be imaginative and creative with your visuals.
Anything that gives some meaning to an otherwise abstract thing is useful. But, in general, pictures are especially helpful¬†because our minds tend to think that way. Pretty much everything in terms of the mnemonics that I do is based on some kind of visualization. Occasionally, I still use acronyms. Occasionally, I still use acrostic type sentences of phrases that have some sort of mnemonic meaning. But at least for me, the bulk of it is memory palace or just visualizing something in an empty space.
I still use repetition. I don’t think any memory technique is perfect. Even if I encode something in a memory palace, I’ll still go back and review it. If I come back in three weeks, it’s pretty much gone. But if you revisit it a couple days after, maybe a week after that, a month after that, then you’ve pretty much got it in longterm memory. The¬†”spaced repetition” review process is helpful, regardless, even if you’re not using mnemonics. Using it in combination with mnemonic memory techniques really kinda kicks it up a notch.
A lot of people don’t really see the practical value of memorization. What real value does it offer?
MULLEN: At first glance, I think a lot of people would think, sure, it¬†would be nice to have a better memory. You could use it to remember people’s names, presentations, facts¬†‚Äì¬†you know, it¬†would be helpful. But at the same time, we live in an age of Wikipedia and smart phones, the Internet ‚Äì does that really matter anymore?
Keep in mind, it’s not about¬†trying to memorize everything. I don’t memorize the numbers in my phone. I don’t have any interest in doing that. I use memory techniques for specific things like remembering¬†people’s names, which is helpful. But the real benefit to me¬†is learning. When you encode, for instance, everything you’re¬†learning in¬†microbiology, for example, into images that you can recall easily, as you move forward, you recognize connections between the things you’re learning more easily.¬†
But then there are plenty of details that, at the time, seem out of context. You can’t really understand them intuitively, they’re just facts. So what I like to do is convert those things into these visual images and remember them that way, and then down the line when you’re able to recall that information and keep it at the front of your mind, you can give context to those things that didn’t have context before. It’s all about seeing connections between things.
How do you think memory techniques could be beneficial for students?
MULLEN: One thing that I think is really the cornerstone of memory techniques that I think is helpful just to understand is this idea that creativity matters. When I was in school, in high school, I would use acronyms and I would feel that’s it’s helpful. But in a sense, I was unsure as to whether or not is was “cheating.” Nobody told me “you should use this” or “you can do this” or “you can visualize things that are sort of weird and help you remember things. Nobody really tells you that’s okay.
Trying to associate things with seemingly disconnected things is an important skill¬†and students should know that it’s okay to do it. So just encouraging people to think creatively or try to associate connections between things, I think would be helpful and I’d like to see more of this type of thing in schools. Not even getting into the whole memory palace technique necessarily ‚Äì that’s obviously very helpful, but there are more¬†basic techniques than¬†that.
So what do you hope to¬†do with Mullen Memory?
MULLEN: I’ve been at¬†this for about three years now,¬†and pretty much from the beginning I wanted to start putting materials¬†online¬†so that I could have¬†to have a platform to teach people how to use¬†the techniques. Even though the¬†book, Moonwalking with Einstein and Foer’s¬†TED talk¬†are¬†so successful, the idea¬†still is not out there enough¬†and¬†still not being used in schools.
Memory techniques are one of those things that are easy to understand but difficult to master. Take the “20¬†Word Challenge” video I did.¬†It’s something that pretty much everybody can do. But then ‚Äì and I’ve talked to some people who have done studies on this ‚Äì at some point, people¬†start to run into roadblocks trying to actually apply the techniques to learning. And they just give up.
That’s understandable. It¬†happened to me. I obviously had a little more motivation to keep pushing on it. But it’s nice for people to have somebody in front of them who can say, here are some things that I struggled with. Here’s how to fix it. When I was coming up, trying to learn this stuff, there were plenty of videos out there saying here’s how memorize a list of 20 words. They may show you¬†how to memorize somebody’s name, but¬†they don’t teach you how to¬†learn exam material. So¬†I wished that I would have had¬†some real examples of people doing that.¬†And that’s something that I struggled with. But¬†there¬†are¬†certain tricks that we use to make that process as easy as possible. So that’s what I’m trying to do with the website¬†‚Äì to give people real-life examples and tutorials¬†to solve some of those questions and¬†basic roadblocks that I ran into.
Is it going to be a business for you?
MULLEN: That¬†still remains to be seen. I really was motivated to get it going because of the world championship, and so it’s still getting off the ground. But, just in the first few weeks, the feedback has been really¬†good. People like the videos. I get a lot of messages ‚Äì every day.¬†We’re taking a year off of med school next year, and I’m hoping to do some presentations and workshop seminars. I’m doing one actually in two days. Just to start to get the word out there just as much as I can.
My main passion with this is trying to get it into education because I think it can be really helpful. It’s certainly changed my life academically.¬†I’m really focusing on schools and universities, rather than businesses, which is different from what a lot of other people do.¬†My big message is that people can do it. A lot of people see me and think, okay, you can do it ‚Äì you’re the world memory champion. And that’s really the reason why I made the 20 word challenge video. Just take 5 minutes, try it, and you can do it.
Improving College and Career Readiness: An Interview with Bud Kroll of Yonkers Partners in Education
Downtown Yonkers, New York. Photo by Flickr user samsebeskazal.
Public education in Mississippi has been and will continue to be a hot topic for discussion in our state. Clearly, improving the college and career readiness of Mississippi students is a critical factor for improving our state‚Äôs economy. But how exactly do we get there?
In 2014, Bud Kroll, a retired Wall Street veteran and volunteer for Yonkers Partners in Education, released a paper which examined student outcomes at New York public schools and districts in such an elegant and logical way that I believe it deserves attention here in Mississippi, too. His paper, College and Career Readiness in the New York State Public Schools, used a statistical analysis technique called regression analysis to measure how schools and districts perform, while controlling for the impact of poverty on student outcomes.
Before turning his attention to public education, Bud spent 27 years in the financial services industry, focusing on the sales and trading of precious metals, energy, fixed income and equity derivatives. He was a member of the New York Mercantile Exchange and the American Stock Exchange and currently serves on the Board of Directors of Deutsche Bank Trust Corporation. He held several positions at JP Morgan Asset Management from 1996 to 2006, including Head of U.S. Equity Quantitative Research and Global Head of Structured Equity.
Tell me a little about Yonkers and how you got involved with Yonkers Partners in Education.
KROLL: Yonkers is right on the border of the Bronx. It’s the first suburb that you come to outside of New York City when you drive north. Yonkers, itself, has a long, checkered history of bankruptcies and poor educational outcomes. So, while Yonkers sits inside a very wealthy county, Westchester County, it is indistinguishable from the Bronx, which is one of the poorest boroughs of New York City. So Yonkers is a very large, complex, high-poverty, high-immigration melting pot. It’s also the fourth-largest school district in the state.
Yonkers Partners in Education is about six years old, and it was originally founded because the mayor and the head of the board of education came to some local civic folks wanting to put together a private/public partnership to help our schools. Our mission is to increase what we call post-secondary success. It‚Äôs our mantra that, in order to be a successful adult, you have to have some sort of post-secondary education to get a decent-paying job. That could be a two-year degree, it could be a four-year, it could be a certification¬†‚Äì¬†but just graduating from high school doesn‚Äôt cut it.
I spent years as a volunteer teaching assistant in math classrooms. My background is in quantitative things, and I viewed firsthand for many years, both in the city, as well as in Mt. Vernon and Yonkers, the challenges that are faced by inner city schools and, in my specific case, in math classrooms. And that’s what led me to get involved in Yonkers Partners in Education.
Why did you decide to approach your paper the way that you did?
KROLL: I’ve got 25-plus years in financial services ‚Äì¬†a lot of it investment management ‚Äì¬†and I’ve been involved particularly in the types of investment management that rely on quantitative measures. I’m not a highly trained quant, but I‚Äôve had the great pleasure of working with a lot of highly trained quants, and I‚Äôve absorbed by osmosis. But what really led me to this paper was the idea that, having spent my entire career in the finance world, why wouldn’t I apply the same kind of thinking and discipline to the education world?
In my line of business, there are lots of different kinds of problems that you can solve. One approach to problem solving is something we call “right to left.‚Äù You start with what you want your outcome to be, and then you move to the left to figure out what you need to do in order to get that outcome.
For example, when you look at a mutual fund, you need to be able to figure out whether the manager of that mutual fund is doing a good job. But the problem with that is you don‚Äôt know what to compare that manager to. In the finance world, about 25 years ago, a technology emerged which allowed you to look at something called common factors: How large are the companies in your portfolio? How much are they related to finance versus insurance versus healthcare? How many of them are U.S. versus international? Those are all called common factor risks. If you can describe the portfolio to the nth degree and reduce all of the components of its common factors, you’re left with something which is specific. That’s the skill of the manager.
So you start with something called a multiple regression. You take a whole bunch of factors, and you have no idea whether or not they are going to end up affecting your outcome. In our case, the desired outcome is college and career readiness as measured by the New York State Aspirational Performance Measure or APM. Then you throw these potential explanatory variables into this sort of ‚Äúwashing machine,‚Äù right? The more observations you have ‚Äì in this case it‚Äôs data from school districts and school buildings ‚Äì the more robust that analysis is going to be.
We’re feeble as human beings in that we have a very difficult time imagining things in more than two dimensions. Which is why I reduced it from what’s called a multiple regression to a simple regression. In the worlds of science and finance, you don’t generally seek to find a single explanatory variable because usually the world isn’t that simple, right? Usually, it’s a bunch of stuff that, together, are highly predictive. It just so happened in this case, and lucky for me and my readers, that one variable was so much more predictive than the others that I was on solid ground to jump from a multiple regression to a simple regression. It allows us to look at things in just two dimensions ‚Äì x and y, instead of x, y, z, a, b, c.
You found poverty to be that strong predictor, right?
Yes. Poverty leads to low college readiness ‚Äì that‚Äôs not a stunning conclusion. It‚Äôs been shown by smarter people than me, much earlier and many, many, many times. Poverty is insidiously bad. That’s not what this paper is trying to say. What this paper is saying is this: If you now confirm that poverty is bad, and you have a quantitative measure that you can then apply to school buildings and districts, you can look at how well certain districts or buildings are doing net of this bad thing.
For someone who’s a golfer, you can think of it this way: How do you go out on a Sunday morning and play against someone who’s a much better golfer and figure out which one had a better day? The answer is your handicap. So if I go out there, and I’m a 21 handicap and the other guy’s a scratch golfer, as long as I do better versus my handicap, I had a better day. That’s what this whole paper is about. Simply coming up with a measure that can calculate net scores.
So, with that as context for the paper, there are a dozen or so ways that this type of framework can be used to identify people who are hitting above their handicap or hitting below their handicap, and we can learn lots of things from both the ones above and the ones below.
We have eight high schools in Yonkers. Now I can shine a bright light on a district, and I can go from high school to high school and say ‚ÄúYou, principal #3, are doing a lousy job with the raw material that you’re getting.” I don’t care if your students have higher poverty levels or lower poverty levels, but net strokes, you’re having a bad day on the golf course.
You plotted college readiness against the percentage of students who qualify for the National School Lunch Program (free and reduced lunch). Can you explain what that chart shows?
First, you see that, increasingly, as poverty gets ‚Äúless bad,‚Äù your outcomes get better. That’s what correlation is. That relationship, the red line, can be represented as an equation. What does the .65 mean? Well, it means that, when you look all the way to the left at the richest districts, the ones with no poverty, your predictive line hits that Y axis between 60 and 70 percent. The .65 tells you is that, if you have no poverty, you would expect 65 percent of your students to be college ready. And the -0.64 in the equation tells you that the poorer you are, the worse you do. That red line is downward sloping ‚Äì¬†it‚Äôs a negative slope. Finally, the R2 (0.63) tells you what percentage of the variance can be explained by that factor.
How tightly clustered are the dots around my line? An R2 of “1” will tell you that every blue dot lies directly on that predictive line. In R2 of “0” would look as if someone just fired a shotgun from 100 yards and you’d have random blue dots, which is what you have with some of the other variables we looked at.
It was interesting that you found that the R2 was higher in districts with low percentages of free and reduced lunch students and lower in the higher poverty districts.
Take a look at the dashed black line that runs north/south. Now hold your hand over everything to the right of that line. The relationship between poverty and readiness to the left of that line is pretty tight. If you now cover everything to the left of that line and just look at the right side, what you see is that it’s not nearly as tight.
We often think about poverty being used to explain the poorest districts and the outcomes therein. If a district is really poor, they do really badly. But what’s so interesting about this finding is that poverty or lack of poverty as explained by this particular variable is more highly predictive in those not-so-poor districts as it is to the right in the poor districts.
So how rich you are or how poor you are is, of course, highly important. But in these super-poor districts, you have a lot of really big outliers. This gives me great hope because it tells me that their outcomes are less imprisoned by poverty level than students in low poverty districts. And my goal in life is to reproduce outcomes of those blue dots that are above the red line. What we find in New York City is that you get these outlier dots in communities that are poor but value education very highly.
So once you control for poverty, you can figure out what those outlier schools and districts are doing right or wrong?
Absolutely. If you just put your statistician‚Äôs hat on, you might say, “okay, if I’m only looking at the population to the right of 60% (free and reduced lunch), one of two things is going on: either there’s another systematic predictor variable that I’m missing, or maybe it’s a great candidate for a multiple regression ‚Äì¬†poverty plus something else. Or maybe it’s just the ‚Äúspecial sauce‚Äù of a specific district ‚Äì¬†not a common factor, but some specific factors that just stir the pot ‚Äì a great principal, a very involved group of parents ‚Äì you know, specific things. But that would require more statistical work. You can do this stuff until your ears bleed.
So what‚Äôs the next step? Have you identified any of those special factors?
I have not done that work. I kind of put this paper in a drawer because once I had my vocabulary ‚Äì I needed to move on to services that we’re actually providing that I have some control over.
My goal in life is not to be a theoretical education researcher. I’m a volunteer, right? Our main focus is in the schools. We have a college adviser in six and a half Yonkers high schools. I collect data when a student comes in and meets with a college adviser, we check them in electronically using a cloud system. And then we can relate the services that we’re providing and how many times we provide a service to a student and what kinds of services those are, whether its SAT Prep or other things to their outcomes. Do they apply to college? Do they enroll in college? Do they persist in college? So once I had my vocabulary, I needed to move on to services that we’re actually providing that I have some control over. But that might be a very interesting area for someone to look into.
Media literacy makes for smart kids at Operation Shoestring
There‚Äôs no doubt that Star Pool‚Äôs children are growing more media savvy by the day. And not just the two grade school-age boys she has at home who already do homework on the computer and have assignments requiring a good deal of Internet-based research.
As Assistant Coordinator of Project Rise at Operation Shoestring, Pool has many other bright students that she helps guide in the ways of interactive media.
‚ÄúIn today‚Äôs society, everything is basically focused on media. Homework, watching TV, everything,‚Äù Pool says, adding that when kids don‚Äôt know their way around the increasingly mesmerizing media landscape, ‚Äúit‚Äôs kind of numbing. I just think it numbs some of their senses.‚Äù
Yes, the vast array of media technology now available can seem mind-boggling, to say the least. And it appears that a large number of educators across the country would agree.
In fact, one recent survey by the Pew Charitable Trusts of secondary-school teachers found that 87% feel that ‚Äúthese technologies are creating an ‚Äòeasily distracted generation with short attention spans‚Äô and 64% say today‚Äôs digital technologies ‚Äòdo more to distract students than to help them academically.‚Äô‚Äù
Okay, aside from being a major distraction for a whole generation, media does have its good side. Media literacy is increasingly important because technology offers kids such a wide world of benefits. As Pool notes, ‚ÄúIt helps with personal life. It helps with finance. It helps with reading comprehension. It helps with math skills.‚Äù In short, Pool says, ‚ÄúIt helps with a lot of the basic tools that they need to become successful children, teens to adults.‚Äù
Pool and other teachers in Operation Shoestring‚Äôs afterschool and summer programs for younger students aim to ‚Äúenhance some of the things that they already know‚Äù and to ‚Äúhelp them get the basics, the foundation, the skills that they need‚Ä¶ once they leave elementary.‚Äù
In addition to providing mentorship, academic enrichment, and media literacy training to kids K-12, the non-profit organization strives to be a resource for the parents of children served, too. ‚ÄúWe inform parents on what they need as well, through different workshops that we have,‚Äù notes Pool. Becoming tech-savvy themselves ‚Äúallows parents to go on and look at the children‚Äôs grades, to go on and see what the homework assignments are‚Äù and just stay better in tune with what‚Äôs going on in their kids‚Äô lives.
And, at the end of the day, ensuring media literacy for Jackson-area youth fits surprisingly well into the overall mission of an organization aimed at teaching children and inspiring families. Media skills training, as Pool puts it, accomplishes both.
‚ÄúWe put the child at the center of everything that we do. And once the child has gotten it, we know that they‚Äôre making it better for the families, which then extends out into the community.‚Äù And that, says Pool, ‚Äúhelps everyone rise.‚Äù
Mitchel Resnick, PhD, is a LEGO Papert Professor of Learning Research and¬†director of the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at¬†MIT Media Lab. His research group developed the “programmable brick” technology that inspired LEGO MindStorms robotics kits. More recently, the group developed Scratch, a popular programming environment for kids.¬†Dr. Resnick received the 2011 McGraw Prize in Education and was listed by Fast Company as one of the 100 Most Creative People in Business.
We spoke about the importance of creative learning, effective strategies for digital literacy, and the impact of initiatives to introduce computer science into more classrooms.
Dr. Mitchel Resnick. Photo by Joi Ito.
What is the Lifelong Kindergarten Group?
RESNICK: My research group, the Lifelong Kindergarten Group, develops new technologies and new activities to engage people in creative learning experiences. So we help people learn through designing, creating and expressing themselves.
We call the group Lifelong Kindergarten because we‚Äôre inspired by the way children learn in kindergarten. In the classic kindergarten, children are constantly designing and creating things in collaboration with one another. They build towers with wooden blocks and make pictures with finger paints‚Äîand we think they learn a lot in the process.
What we want to do with our new technology and activities is extend that kindergarten approach to learning, to learners of all ages. So everybody can continue to learn in a kindergarten style, but to learn more advanced and sophisticated ideas over time.
I understand there‚Äôs a long history at MIT of using computers as a tool for education.
RESNICK: It goes all the way back to the 1960s with Seymour Papert, who started working on the Logo programming language. It was a way for kids to be able to write computer programs to control things. Now, at the time, most people thought it was crazy because computers cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. But Seymour recognized that computers were going to become less expensive and would proliferate throughout the world. So he saw there was an opportunity to use computers as tools for young people and that young people would have access to that technology. He knew that the best experiences would result from¬†not just using computers to deliver information, but¬†letting kids take control of the technology so they could create things.
Seymour would say it‚Äôs important that you don‚Äôt want the computer programming the child; you want the child programming the computer. You want the child to be in control. So Seymour started these ideas all the way back in the 1960s. His ideas then started to get out into the world when personal computers became available in the late 1970s into the 1980s. The Logo programming language became one of the most popular ways children were using personal computers in schools in the 1980s.
I was deeply influenced by Seymour. He was my most important mentor, and I continue to be inspired by his ideas about children learning by designing and creating things. Our work on LEGO Mindstorms and¬†Scratch were deeply inspired by the ideas from Seymour Papert.
Why is it important to provide kids with opportunities for creative learning?
RESNICK: The process of making things in the world‚Äîcreating things‚Äîit provides us with the opportunity to take the ideas that we have in our mind and to represent them out in the world. Once we do that, it sparks new ideas. So there‚Äôs this constant back and forth between having new ideas in your mind, creating things in the world, and that process sparking new ideas in the mind which lets you create new things. So it‚Äôs this constant spiral of creating and generating new ideas.
We live in a world that is changing more rapidly than ever before. Things that you learn today could be obsolete tomorrow.¬†But one thing is for sure: People will confront unexpected situations and unexpected challenges in the future. So what‚Äôs going to be most important is for kids to be able to come up with new and innovative solutions to the new challenges that arise. That‚Äôs why it‚Äôs so important to develop as a creative thinker. Just knowing a fixed set of facts and skills is not enough. The ability to think and act creatively will be the most important ingredient for success in the future.
You‚Äôve spoken about ‚Äúlearning to code‚Äù versus ‚Äúcoding to learn.‚Äù What‚Äôs the difference?
RESNICK: Many people are starting to get interested in learning to code, or learning to program computers. One reason a lot of people are interested is because it provides opportunities for jobs and careers because there‚Äôs a growing need for professional programmers and computer scientists. So that‚Äôs one reason for learning to code‚Äîthere really is a need and there are economic opportunities.
But I think there‚Äôs a much bigger opportunity. I often make the analogy to learning to write: Some people who are learning to write will become professional journalists or novelists, however most people aren‚Äôt going to make a living just through their writing. But we still want everyone to learn to write, because once you learn to write, it lets you organize your thinking, and it helps you express your ideas in new ways. I see it as being the same with coding. Although coding does provide some economic opportunities for jobs and careers, I think the most important reason for learning to code is it lets you organize your ideas and express your ideas.
Coding lets you learn many other things. So that‚Äôs why I think what‚Äôs most important is not just learning to code, but coding to learn. As you‚Äôre learning to code, you‚Äôre learning many other things.
What kinds of skills does coding teach?
RESNICK: You learn how to organize your ideas. That is, you take complex ideas and break them down into simpler parts: How to identify problems and then ‚Äúdebug‚Äù the problems. How to take the ideas of others and reformulate those ideas to meet your needs. Those are all common things that people do when they‚Äôre coding. But those are also common things you do in all types of problem-solving activities and design activities.
Even if you‚Äôre doing something that has nothing to do with coding‚Äîif you‚Äôre organizing a birthday party for a friend or developing a new marketing plan for your company‚Äîyou use some of those same ideas. So those approaches, which you can learn through coding, can then be applied to all different kinds of activities both in your personal life and your work life.
Should every child learn to code? Should coding be a school subject like algebra or chemistry?
RESNICK: I do think every child should learn to code, and I would approach it similarly to writing‚Äîthe same way we teach children to write and then let them use their writing in all other courses. You learn to write and then use your writing in writing book reports and writing science reports‚Äîyou use it in all other subjects. And I think similarly, it would be great for all kids to code and then use that knowledge in many other classes.
Events like Hour of Code have raised the visibility of coding and given people an opportunity to get some sense of what coding is all about. But it only will be meaningful if there‚Äôs a follow-up and follow-through. If people take that initial spark and turn an hour of code into a day of code or a week of code or a month of code where they continue to explore the possibilities of coding.
So it‚Äôs the same thing. If you just spend an hour learning to write, it wouldn‚Äôt be so useful. On the other hand, if that sparks your imagination and then you continue to do more things with it, then it becomes meaningful.
How is Scratch changing the way people think about computer programming?
RESNICK: We emphasize that Scratch is a way to express yourself creatively, to express your ideas. It‚Äôs also a social activity: You can share your projects with others and learn from what others are doing. Many other organizations that are trying to help people learn to code don‚Äôt focus on those ideas. They often are just focused on students learning the concepts of computer science or learning how to solve puzzles with programming.
We take a different approach with Scratch. We see Scratch as an opportunity to express yourself creatively and to work collaboratively. I think it‚Äôs really important to have that as a core underpinning for what coding is about. Our ultimate goals with Scratch are to help young people think creatively, reason systematically and work collaboratively. We think those skills are incredibly important in today‚Äôs society.¬†
In Mississippi, we have some big challenges relating to education and poverty. Can computer science be a game-changer for us?
RESNICK:¬†I think it‚Äôs always dangerous to assume that there‚Äôs any one thing that‚Äôs going to make a big cultural change. But it could be one element.
Before you can think about changing living standards, you need to change learning standards. I think computer science provides new opportunities to help people become better learners. I think the thing that‚Äôs going to guarantee success in the future is people¬†developing as creative thinkers and creative learners. Doing creative work with technology through learning to code is one pathway to that. It‚Äôs not the only pathway. But I think what‚Äôs probably the most important thing is having young people grow up with opportunities to think and act creatively. That‚Äôs the key.
Would you say that computer science can engage students that may otherwise be not that interested in school?
RESNICK:¬†I do think it‚Äôs incredibly important to build on young people‚Äôs interest. People are going to be most interested in learning when they‚Äôre working on things that they really care about. The computer, if it‚Äôs used the right way, has the opportunity to engage kids in doing things that they really care about. But I want to add that doesn‚Äôt happen automatically. The computer can also be used in a way that kids won‚Äôt be interested in.
So it‚Äôs not just about using the computer‚Äîit‚Äôs the way in which it‚Äôs used.
There aren‚Äôt very many credentialed computer science teachers out there. Are credentials necessary for teaching computer science to young people?
RESNICK:¬†I agree with you that there‚Äôs a challenge. Many teachers don‚Äôt have much background in this area. I think further into the future, we‚Äôll get more teachers over time with more expertise. But, for now, I think there are great resources for teachers to learn enough to help young people get started with coding and using computers in creative ways.
I would also encourage schools to support teachers in learning new things so that they can help support these young people‚Äîand also hiring new teachers who can bring new expertise into the schools.¬†This isn‚Äôt going to happen overnight. It‚Äôs a long-term process.
How should K-12 schools approach the teaching of computer science?
RESNICK:¬†We should make sure all subjects are taught in a way where kids get a chance to learn through creative expression. And not just computer programming. In a science class or physics class or biology class, teachers should allow students to have creative learning experiences.¬†
We should rethink all school subjects so there are opportunities for children to learn by designing, creating, experimenting and exploring. That‚Äôs also true when we use computers. We should use computers to design, create, experiment and explore. But we should apply those ideas to all classes and all media.
So you‚Äôre saying more hands-on learning?
RESNICK:¬†Well, it depends on what you mean by hands-on. I would emphasize learning by creating and experimenting. If you put your hands on something, and you‚Äôre just following the instructions to build a model, then that‚Äôs not a very good activity even though your hands are involved. What‚Äôs important is to give kids the opportunity to create things and experiment with things, to use their imaginations and to think creatively.
What are your thoughts about getting more women and minority students involved in computer science?
RESNICK:¬†I think that‚Äôs linked to what we talked about earlier with supporting people and building on their own interests. Often, in all school subjects, including particularly computer science, you‚Äôre taught in one way which might be appealing to some people but not others. We need to make sure we provide multiple pathways into activities.
For example, when we developed Scratch, we made sure that people can use Scratch to do all types of different things. You can make a game, you can make a story, you can make an animation, you can compose music. That‚Äôs because different kids have different interests. If we only had computer programming for making games, that would be appealing for some kids and not for others. We wanted to be sure to provide multiple pathways so that kids from all backgrounds and all interests are able to follow their interests and become creative learners.
Cameron Wilson is the COO and VP of government affairs at Code.org.¬†We spoke about Code.org’s work to expand computer science education in the U.S., including their wildly successful Hour of Code initiative. Currently more than 24 million students have participated in the Hour of Code’s online tutorials.¬†We also talked about the prospects for expanding computer science education in Mississippi.
Interested in joining the movement? Be sure to visit Code.org’s website to get the facts about the current state of computer science education in Mississippi.
Code.org: “What Most Schools Don’t Teach”
You have celebrities, business leaders and¬†politicians from both sides of the aisle speaking out for¬†computer science education. How did you get such widespread support?
WILSON: I think everybody recognizes that, for our country to lead in the world, we have to lead technology-wise. All of the technology that surrounds us on an everyday basis has its roots in computer science, and everybody recognizes that. The political leadership of this country, I think they‚Äôre willing to use the bully pulpit to bring that message to schools and to students.
From a corporate perspective, the issue businesses face on an almost daily basis is hiring problems. They need more people that are software engineers, that have a background in computer science to create the applications that they need. And it‚Äôs not just the tech companies. Everybody sort of thinks that this is a Microsoft problem or a Google problem. Those companies hire a lot of technology workers, but 70% of the jobs are actually outside the IT field in jobs like manufacturing, the service industry, finance, banking. Computer science is at the core of a lot of services they offer, so that really brings together the corporate community in a huge way.
Were you surprised by how many people participated in Hour of Code?
WILSON: It was amazing. Our goal was to get 10 million students to take the Hour of Code, and we ended up with that within the first three days. We had 18 million by the end of the first week.
The unbelievable reach‚Äîteachers getting it into their schools, students participating and parents engaged‚Äîwas more than we could have hoped for after basically coming up with this idea in July and trying to market it to schools. So it really did explode, and we were incredibly happy at the response.
About half of the participants were girls, another amazing statistic when you consider how many girls have participated in computer science in the past. So all of those things were really heartening.
The data is amazing. But, to me, the most gratifying piece is the outpouring of stories from teachers about how they had never experienced anything like this before. They had students working together. They had entire schools that were participating. They had kids coming back and asking for more.
I think, from our perspective, it really showed not only the capacity for our teachers to really take and run with something like the Hour of Code, but just the massive amount of demand that students have for learning about computer science and creating this kind of technology.
The schools that didn‚Äôt take part in the Hour of Code ‚Äì what do they need to know?
WILSON: Number one, they can do it any time of the year, and they can do it next year ‚Äì we‚Äôre starting the planning for next year. Number two, they can immediately engage students with computer science education through the blended learning course for K-8 students that Code.org offers.¬†
We have about 500,000 students participating in the K-8 program and 10,000 teachers that registered these students, which makes it one of the largest computer science programs in the entire country. So there‚Äôs lots of things that schools can do starting now, whether it‚Äôs in school or after school. Parents can do it at home, too.
How much demand is there for computer programmers right now?
WILSON: The demand changes from state to state, but it‚Äôs usually like two to five times larger for computing than it is for the average of all other occupations. And then nationally, it‚Äôs about four times greater.
Computing is a Bureau of Labor Statistics category, so that encompasses a fair number of jobs that are all computing related. So software engineering, both on the applications and operations side, and programmers are the biggest elements of it. But there‚Äôs also networking engineers and database engineers that are part of it, as well.
One of the things we point out is, whether you‚Äôre going to go into any of those broader IT fields or software engineering ‚Äì¬†or really any field nowadays ‚Äì¬†a computer science component at the K-12 level helps provide a really strong foundation for the fundamental knowledge you need.
If you look at projected job growth in STEM-related fields, about 70% of the new jobs and about 50% of total jobs are in computing-related fields.
There‚Äôs been a shift in looking at computer science as a ‚Äúvocational‚Äù skill to more of a ‚Äúfoundational‚Äù skill. Why is that?
WILSON: I think it‚Äôs a bit of both, really. We definitely view it as a foundational literacy for the 21st century. All of the things that you get from computer science, whether it‚Äôs understanding how the technology works or it‚Äôs actually understanding how to think about problem solving in creative ways ‚Äîhow to deal with data and information‚Äîall of those things are really critical for lots of different jobs.
So, for example, a lawyer nowadays might be faced with a privacy lawsuit where he needs to understand how encryption works or how data transfer across the Internet works. I‚Äôm not saying he needs to know the nuts and bolts of it, but he needs to have a basic understanding.
Additionally, computer science provides critical-thinking skills and data-analysis skills that are sort of unique in science. So that‚Äôs why we consider it to be foundational for lots and lots of different fields. It‚Äôs just something that every student should be exposed to.
If you continue on a pathway in your career by taking more computer science classes and get a computer science degree, there are lots of great jobs out there. There‚Äôs the knowledge component and the skills component.
How can Mississippians become advocates for computer science in our state?
WILSON: The first thing is to organize ‚Äì build a community of people who understand the issue of computer science education and want to improve it in the schools.
Connect with educators. With the school districts that are offering great quality computer science programs, you can use them as models to scale up. And then engage with policymakers with the ‚Äúmake it count‚Äù agenda, which is trying to make computer science count for math or science credit. That can either be done at the state level or locally and often both. That‚Äôs the first step on the pathway toward expanding computer science education. But then they can work with school boards ‚Äì¬†either the state school board or their local school boards ‚Äì¬†to begin a conversation.¬†
One of the things Code.org is trying to do is to expand the number of teachers that understand the content knowledge. So we have announced partnerships with multiple districts in the country where we‚Äôre actually offering professional development for teachers around our Exploring Computer Science Curriculum and Computer Science Principles Curriculum, and our K-8 curriculum.¬†
So we expand the number of teachers that are out there and expand the number of schools that are offering it. All of those things can be pushed locally as well. I think that would be the major task to any community organizer to help build capacity and infrastructure around that issue and then going off and talk to local school boards, talk to legislators, allow the big issues and the need to understand computer science education in this way.
How do the school district partnerships work?
WILSON: Code.org will enter into a partnership with school districts around the country. We‚Äôre just finishing up districts where we‚Äôre going to be putting in courses for 2014.¬†
Basically, what we will do is offer to pay for all the teachers’ professional development for computer science courses. We pay stipends for teachers to go through the professional development program. We give all the curriculum away for free to the school districts. And then we handle all the workshop logistics for professional development, both for the online development and in-person.¬†
So that‚Äôs what we do on our side. The expectations for the district are that they will put these courses into place, the teachers who go through the professional development program will actually teach the course, and that they will continue to expand computer science offerings within their school district.
That‚Äôs the overall approach we take on the education side to help initialize the system to have more computer science education. And then, hopefully, it becomes part of what administrators value, what principals value and what superintendents value, so that it just becomes part of the everyday educational experience.
You’re working to get states to count computer science as a math or science credit, rather than an elective, for high school graduation. Have you run into any resistance to this idea?¬†
WILSON: For the most part, we‚Äôve taught education in this country for 150 years or so roughly in the same way. When new subjects like computer science come into the education mainstream, there‚Äôs often not a very good picture about how to treat that subject. I think there‚Äôs a growing recognition and general acceptance that computer science should be part of a student‚Äôs general experience or part of the core subjects that students should expect to be exposed to. We‚Äôve seen very little resistance to that idea. The question really comes down to how you implement those programs at the local level.
We‚Äôre up to 17 states plus the District of Columbia that allow computer science to satisfy a math or science credit. And that‚Äôs just largely been an awareness effort. Since we‚Äôve really focused attention on this in the latter half of 2013, we‚Äôve had five states change their policies, either from a legislative or a regulatory perspective. And that‚Äôs happened in red states, blue states, from a variety of actors. So you see wide support for it because it‚Äôs really just making people understand and be aware that computer science should be treated as part of the core.
Who ultimately makes the decision about graduation credits?
WILSON: Each state is different, and each state handles graduation requirements differently. Take the state of Washington, which took a legislative route that was passed by the house and senate and signed by the governor with huge bipartisan support. They legislated that local school boards would have to treat computer science as a mathematics or a science credit depending on how the local school board wanted to implement it. So that‚Äôs the legislative route.¬†
Maryland passed legislation earlier that called for the state board of ed to review their overall graduation requirements for mathematics. But in the process of going through that, the state board of education added computer science to the mix for allowing it to count toward a mathematics credit. So that‚Äôs a regulatory route.¬†
If you look at Tennessee, they were another one where the state board of education simply passed regulations to make the shift. So it depends on where the levers of power lie, and it depends on whether there are actually statewide graduation requirements.¬†
Take a state like Colorado. Colorado is a completely local-control state. They don‚Äôt have any statewide graduation requirements. So you actually have to go district by district to have this discussion.¬†
What are the next steps for expanding access to computer science in the states?
WILSON: Code.org‚Äôs goal is to expand access to computer science education for all students. So, from our perspective, that means making sure that states have good professional development programs for computer science, that school districts are actually putting in high-quality computer science education courses, that the state has standards that help define and frame what computer science education should look like at the local level, and then, additionally, that states have teacher certification programs that are connected to content knowledge.
Maris, West & Baker, with assistance from, the Mississippi Department of Education, Innovate Mississippi, the Mississippi Development Authority and Venture Technologies, is sponsoring a series of computer programming (coding) workshops for students and teachers in Mississippi during the month of November, which has been designated “Innovation Month” in Mississippi.
Why is an advertising agency promoting k-12 coding? The way we see it, teaching kids to code is an economic imperative for participation in the computer-driven digital economy that’s fueling growth and development around the world.
According to the computer science advocacy group, code.org, our country is projected to have a shortage of one million needed computer science graduates by 2020. While other countries around the world have expanded opportunities for early computer science education, computer science has actually been in the decline in America over the past ten years. Promoting computer programming education is vital to American economic interests, and it can be an absolute game-changer in Mississippi.
To imagine the impact computer programming skills can have on our state, consider the following:
‚Ä¢ Apple’s App Store has created nearly 300,000 jobs in the U.S. according to the company figures. Considering, Apple represents just one segment of the fast-growing market for mobile apps, it’s clear that the popularity of mobile devices is driving significant economic growth.
‚Ä¢ The American¬†computer gaming industry now¬†rivals our movie industry. It took the game Call of Duty: Black Ops II just 15 days to pass the $1 billion mark in gross sales. That‚Äôs faster than the record achieved by Avatar, the highest grossing film of all time.
‚Ä¢ Increasingly, the world’s largest and most powerful companies are in the software business. Think Microsoft, Apple, Google and others. Those companies that are not in the software business depend on proprietary software for their daily operation and economic vitality. In the words of serial entrepreneur and venture capitalist, Marc Andreesson, software is eating the world.
We need only look to our next door, Louisiana, to see how other states are positioning themselves to spur software development. The state is investing $15 million over the next ten years to increase the number of computer science graduates at LSU. In September, the state¬†broke ground on a new $55 million urban development in downtown Baton Rouge that will include a new IBM Services Center. The development is expected to create 800 new direct jobs.
But success in the software world doesn’t require that type of investment. Knowledge and creativity are the critical assets, not money. Mississippi’s great musical invention, the Blues, was first played on cheap guitars purchased from the Sears’ catalog and front-porch diddly bows. From there, the blues took the world by storm. Our next great revolution could owe its existence to a $300 laptop.¬†Coding, in that sense, levels the playing field. If you “know the code,” anything is possible.
Let’s dream big and make innovation happen on that scale here in Mississippi.